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Ingrown Toenail

An ingrown toenail occurs when the edge of the nail grows down and into the skin of the toe. There may be pain, redness, and swelling around the nail.

Alternative Names
Onychocryptosis; Unguis incarnatus; Nail avlusion; Matrix excision

Causes
An ingrown toenail can result from a number of things, but poorly fitting shoes and toenails that are not trimmed properly are the most common causes. The skin along the edige of a toenail may become red and infected. The great toe is usually affected, but any toenail can become ingrown.
Ingrown toenails may occur when extra pressure is placed on your toe. Most commonly, this pressure is caused by shoes that are too tight or too loose. If you walk often or participate in athletics, a shoe that is even a little tight can cause this problem. Some deformities of the foot or toes can also place extra pressure on the toe.
Nails that are not trimmed properly can also cause ingrown toenails.When your toenails are trimmed too short or the edges are rounded rather than cut straight across, the nail may curl downward and grow into the skin.
Poor eyesight and physical inability to reach the toe easily, as well as having thick nails, can make improper trimming of the nails more likely
Picking or tearing at the corners of the nails can also cause an ingrown toenail
Some people are born with nails that are curved and tend to grow downward. Others have toenails that are too large for their toes. Stubbing your toe or other injuries can also lead to an ingrown toenail.

Prevention
Wear shoes that fit properly. Shoes that you wear every day should have plenty of room around your toes. Shoes that you wear for walking briskly or for running should have plenty of room also, but not be too loose.
When trimming your toenails:
Considering briefly soaking your foot in warm water to soften the nail
Use a clean, sharp nail trimmer
Trim toenails straight across the top. Do not taper or round the corners or trim too short
Do not pick or tear at the nails
Keep the feet clean and dry. People with diabetes should have routine foot exams and nail care.EditIngrown ToenailLeave a Reply

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Plantar Fascia

What is the Plantar Fascia?

The plantar fascia is a thick fibrous band on the bottom of your foot. It is attached to the heel bone (calcaneus) and fans forward toward the toes. It acts like a bowstring and supports the arch and several muscles inside the foot.

What is Plantar Fasciitis?
When there is increased stress on the arch, microscopic tears can occur within the plantar fascia, usually at its attachment on the heel. This results in inflammation and pain with standing and walking and sometimes at rest. It usually causes pain and stiffness on the bottom of your heel.

Causes
Improper and / or non-supportive shoes
Over-training in sports (repetitive microtrauma)
Lack of flexibility (decreased ankle dorsiflexion)
Weight gain (pregnancy)
Obesity
Fat-pad atrophy (decreased cushion on bottom of heel)
Prolonged standing
Prolonged bed rest
Walking / running on hard surfaces
Biomechanical problems (flat feet, high arch feet)
Some people also have heel spurs on the bottom of their heels. It is not the spur that is causing the pain. Many people have heel spurs and no pain. Likewise, there are people who have plantar fasciitis who do not have heel spurs. The pain is due to the microtears in the plantar fascia, not the heel spur.

Symptoms
“first step” pain after getting out of bed or sittingpain after driving
pain on the bottom inside of your heel
deep aching pain
pain is worse when barefoot
First step pain occurs because the plantar fascia is permitted to relax when you are not walking on it, but when you step down on it; the fascia is put on immediate stretch. A certain amount of activity is needed to get the area to warm up and the pain may go away for awhile, but by the end of the day the pain may come back.EditPlantar FasciaLeave a Reply

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Athlete’s foot

Athlete’s foot (also known as ringworm of the foot and tinea pedis) is a fungal infection of the skin that causes scaling, flaking, and itch of affected areas.
It is caused by fungi in the genus Trichophyton and is typically transmitted in moist areas where people walk barefoot, such as showers or bathhouses.

Although the condition typically affects the feet, it can spread to other areas of the body, including the groin. Athlete’s foot can be prevented by good hygiene, and is treated by a number of pharmaceutical and other treatments.

Signs and symptoms

Athlete’s foot causes scaling, flaking, and itching of the affected skin. Blisters and cracked skin may also occur, leading to exposed raw tissue, pain, swelling, and inflammation. Secondary bacterial infection can accompany the fungal infection, sometimes requiring a course of oral antibiotics.

The infection can be spread to other areas of the body, such as the groin, and usually is called by a different name once it spreads, such as tinea corporis on the body or limbs and tinea cruris (jock itch or dhobi itch) for an infection of the groin. Tinea pedis most often manifests between the toes, with the space between the fourth and fifth digits most commonly afflicted.
Some individuals may experience an allergic response to the fungus called an “id reaction” in which blisters or vesicles can appear in areas such as the hands, chest and arms. Treatment of the fungus usually results in resolution of the id reaction.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis & treatment can be performed by a general practitioner or pharmacist, and by specialists such as a dermatologist, podiatrist & to a lesser extent a foot health practitioner.
Athlete’s foot can usually be diagnosed by visual inspection of the skin, but where the diagnosis is in doubt direct microscopy of a potassium hydroxide preparation (known as a KOH test) may help rule out other possible causes, such as eczema or psoriasis. A KOH preparation is performed on skin scrapings from the affected area.
The KOH preparation has an excellent positive predictive value, but occasionally false negative results may be obtained, especially if treatment with an anti-fungal medication has already begun.
If the above diagnoses are inconclusive or if a treatment regimen has already been started, a biopsy of the affected skin (i.e. a sample of the living skin tissue) can be taken for histological examination. A Wood’s lamp, although useful in diagnosing fungal infections of the hair (Tinea captis), is not usually helpful in diagnosing tinea pedis since the common dermatophytes that cause this disease do not fluoresce under ultraviolet light.
However, it can be useful for determining if the disease is due to a non-fungal afflictor.

Prevention

The fungi that cause athlete’s foot can live on shower floors, wet towels, and footwear, and can spread from person to person from shared contact with showers, towels, etc.Hygiene, therefore, plays an important role in managing an athlete’s foot infection.Since fungi thrive in moist environments, keeping feet and footwear as dry as possible, and avoiding sharing towels, etc., aids prevention of primary infection.

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Hammer toe

Hammer toe is a deformity of the toe, in which the end of the toe is bent downward.

Causes
Hammer toe usually affects the second toe, although it may also affect the other toes. The toe goes into a claw-like position. The condition may occur as a result of pressure from a bunion. A corn on the top of a toe and a callus on the sole of the foot develop, which makes walking painful.
The condition may be present at birth (congenital) or develop from wearing short, narrow shoes.
Hammer toe also occurs in children who continue to wear shoes they have outgrown.
The rare case in which all toes seem to be involved may indicate a problem with the nerves or spinal cord.

Symptoms
Callus forms on the sole of the foot
Claw-like deformity of a toe
Corn forms on the top of a toe
Foot pain — pain in the joint where the great toe joins the foot

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Athlete’s foot

Athlete’s foot

Athlete’s foot (also known as ringworm of the foot and tinea pedis) is a fungal infection of the skin that causes scaling, flaking, and itch of affected areas.
It is caused by fungi in the genus Trichophyton and is typically transmitted in moist areas where people walk barefoot, such as showers or bathhouses.

Although the condition typically affects the feet, it can spread to other areas of the body, including the groin. Athlete’s foot can be prevented by good hygiene, and is treated by a number of pharmaceutical and other treatments.

Signs and symptoms

Athlete’s foot causes scaling, flaking, and itching of the affected skin. Blisters and cracked skin may also occur, leading to exposed raw tissue, pain, swelling, and inflammation. Secondary bacterial infection can accompany the fungal infection, sometimes requiring a course of oral antibiotics.

The infection can be spread to other areas of the body, such as the groin, and usually is called by a different name once it spreads, such as tinea corporis on the body or limbs and tinea cruris (jock itch or dhobi itch) for an infection of the groin. Tinea pedis most often manifests between the toes, with the space between the fourth and fifth digits most commonly afflicted.
Some individuals may experience an allergic response to the fungus called an “id reaction” in which blisters or vesicles can appear in areas such as the hands, chest and arms. Treatment of the fungus usually results in resolution of the id reaction.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis & treatment can be performed by a general practitioner or pharmacist, and by specialists such as a dermatologist, podiatrist & to a lesser extent a foot health practitioner.
Athlete’s foot can usually be diagnosed by visual inspection of the skin, but where the diagnosis is in doubt direct microscopy of a potassium hydroxide preparation (known as a KOH test) may help rule out other possible causes, such as eczema or psoriasis. A KOH preparation is performed on skin scrapings from the affected area.
The KOH preparation has an excellent positive predictive value, but occasionally false negative results may be obtained, especially if treatment with an anti-fungal medication has already begun.
If the above diagnoses are inconclusive or if a treatment regimen has already been started, a biopsy of the affected skin (i.e. a sample of the living skin tissue) can be taken for histological examination. A Wood’s lamp, although useful in diagnosing fungal infections of the hair (Tinea captis), is not usually helpful in diagnosing tinea pedis since the common dermatophytes that cause this disease do not fluoresce under ultraviolet light.
However, it can be useful for determining if the disease is due to a non-fungal afflictor.

Prevention

The fungi that cause athlete’s foot can live on shower floors, wet towels, and footwear, and can spread from person to person from shared contact with showers, towels, etc.Hygiene, therefore, plays an important role in managing an athlete’s foot infection.Since fungi thrive in moist environments, keeping feet and footwear as dry as possible, and avoiding sharing towels, etc., aids prevention of primary infection.